Maxim Gindele (PhD Student)


fon +49 (0)7531 88-4808

room L1051


since 06/2018

University of Konstanz, Germany

PhD student in Dr. Denis Gebauer’s group


03/2018 – 05/2018

BASF SE in Ludwigshafen, Germany

Internship in material analytics department


10/2016 – 02/2018

University of Konstanz, Germany

Master Studies in Chemistry


10/2013 – 09/2016

University of Konstanz, Germany

Bachelor Studies in Chemistry




Research Interest

My research is focused on the study of crystallization processes in presence of polymer additives. Due to its relevance in industrial applications and biomineralization, calcium carbonate was chosen as a model system to investigate the interactions of different polymers with the mineral precursor phases during crystallization.


Unintentional calcium carbonate formation in water pipes or heat exchangers remains a problem to this day.[1,2] Usually scale inhibitors such as phosphonated compounds[3] or polycarboxylates[4] are added to prevent or reduce scale formation. While the effects of these inhibitors on the CaCO3 crystallization are quite drastic, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms and interactions is still out of reach and much needed for the design of improved scale inhibitors.[5]


Another motivation to understand the effect of polymers on CaCO3 crystallization is connected to biomineralization and biomimetics. In many organisms (e.g. molluscs or sea urchins), the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate can be precisely controlled by proteins.[6] Investigating the effect of poly(amino acids) such as poly(aspartic acid) and poly(glutamic acid) on the crystallization can help to understand the interactions of more complex proteins with the different mineral phases during biomineralization.


Our approach is to investigate the effect of different polymers on the CaCO3 crystallization using an automated titration setup. Especially the role of pH, additive concentration and polymerization degree will be explored.


[1] H. Cölfen, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 2003, 8, 23-31.

[2] F. Meldrum, International Materials Reviews 2003, 48, 187-224.

[3] Y. Hong, N. Letzelter, J. S. Evans, D. S. Yufit, J. W. Steed, Crystal Growth & Design 2018.

[4] D. Gebauer, H. Cölfen, A. Verch, M. Antonietti, Advanced Materials 2009, 21, 435-439.

[5] A. Verch, D. Gebauer, M. Antonietti, H. Cölfen, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2011, 13, 16811-16820.

[6] L. B. Gower, Chem. Rev. 2008, 108, 4551-4627.





Y.-C. Huang, M. B. Gindele, J. Knaus, A. Rao, D. Gebauer, CrystEngComm, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/C8CE00241J





Award of the Alumni Association of the University of Konstanz (VEUK e.V.) for the best bachelor degree of the year